Roman Colliseum
Contact me here                   For the history of Rome, check this Wikipedia link. For books, click here.

Setting foot in Rome and having a full day to explore the city was an exciting prospect. I've never been here before but have read so much about this eternal city and it's 2700 year old history. Reading about it could not do it justice. You have to be here to absorb it in all 3D. Besides, there is so much to see here, one day is just enough to get you baited and you want to return and stay here for days, weeks and months - if not forever.

A special thank you goes to our wonderful tour guide Francesca Federici for being so helpful to all of us during our stay in Rome.

Wikipedia is a great source of Roman History and I have used it extensively here. You might be interested in how ancient Romans lived in the article "Roman Society, Roman Life". Project Gutenberg's The History of Rome by Titus Livius is another good reading. The History of Rome Vol I (Roman origins and the Monarchy) by Theodor Mommsen - 1895 (PDF file) that included a total of 5 volumes was awarded the 2nd Nobel prize (in Literature) and the only one ever to an author on History. On the History of Rome, Mommsen was by far the dominant figure whose vast knowledge on the subject and his fresh narrative has no iqual to this day.

Rome was the first (April 15) and last (April 22-24) destination in our cruise package. After ending the cruise and arriving here from Venice on the evening of April 22, we were driven to a hotel at the outskirts of Rome where we spent the night. On the morning of April 24, we took the plane back home.

On the morning of April 23, we were picked up at the hotel for the tour of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican starting at 10:00AM. At about 12:30PM, we were  dropped off at the Fontana di Trevi where we would later meet at 7:00PM. I decided that the free time would be best spent visiting the Palatine Hill, the Roman Forum, the Coliseum and the Pantheon, in that order. This page is therefore organized chronologically, identifying a number of photos. Click on each link below for the related sites of Rome.

1. St. Peter's Square and the Basilica, Vatican City (10-11:30AM). For more info, click on this external link.
2. Fontana di Trevi
3. Palatine Hill
‏‎(2-3PM). For more info, click on this external link.
4. Forum
(Forum Romanum) (3:05-3:40PM)
5. Coliseum
6. Pantheon
(not to be confused with The Parthenon in Greece) (5:09-‏‎5:40PM)

Note: All the cruise photos (except some taken here in Rome with my backup Canon PC1200 camera), were imaged with my Nikon D7000 DSLR Camera with Nikon 18-105mm DX VR Lens and Columbus nGPS mounted on the hot shoe. Nikon ViewNX2™ software connected with Google Maps™ was used to pinpoint the location of each photo as shown by the pins.

To view larger image, click on the small image and then press browser BACK BUTTON to return to this page.

 For the GPS camera photo route map of Rome, click here. For the map of the Palatine Hill, the Forum and the Coliseum, click here.

All the photos and text (except for external text quotes) are Copyright © by Jack Lupic and no reproduction is permitted.

Sunday, April 22, 2012: Arriving into Rome from the airport
8:15 PM

Lateran Obelisk in Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano
 Lateran Obelisk in Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano (8:15PM).
N41°53'09" E12°30'12"
Started by Tuthmosis II and finished by Tuthmosis III, it is the tallest obelisk in Rome, and the largest standing ancient Egyptian obelisk in the world, weighing over 230 tons. Originally from the temple of Amun in Karnak. Brought to Alexandria with another obelisk by Constantius II, and brought on its own from there to Rome in 357 to decorate the spina of the Circus Maximus. Found in three pieces in 1587, restored approximately 4 m shorter by Pope Sixtus V, and erected near the Lateran Palace and basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano in 1588. Source: Wikipedia. See Google street view of the obelisk.

April 23, 2012 - The Tour of Rome:

The Mausoleum of Hadrian
On the way to the Vatican City

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum.

The tomb of the Roman emperor Hadrian, also called Hadrian's mole, was erected on the right bank of the Tiber, between 135 AD and 139 AD. Hadrian's ashes were placed here a year after his death in Baiae in 138 AD, together with those of his wife Sabina, and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in 138 AD. Following this, the remains of succeeding emperors were also placed here, the last recorded deposition being Caracalla in 217 AD. Hadrian also built the Pons Aelius facing straight onto the mausoleum – it still provides a scenic approach from the center of Rome and the right bank of the Tiber.

Much of the tomb contents and decorations have been lost since the building's conversion to a military fortress in 401 and its subsequent inclusion in the Aurelian Walls by Flavius Augustus Honorius. The urns and ashes were scattered by Visigoth looters during Alaric's sacking of Rome in 410, and the original decorative bronze and stone statuary were thrown down upon the attacking Goths when they besieged Rome in 537, as recounted by Procopius. An unusual survivor, however, is the capstone of a funerary urn made of porphyry (probably that of Hadrian) mined from a single quarry at Mons Porpyritis, in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, which made its way to Saint Peter's Basilica and was incorporated into a massive Renaissance baptistery for the tomb of Emperor Otto II. Source: Wikipedia.

The Mausoleum of Hadrian
(9:54AM).    (9:54AM)   (9:56AM)
St. Peter's Square and the Basilica
Vatican City
For the History of Vatican, click on this Wikipedia link
Crossing river Tiber on the way to Vatican    
Crossing river Tiber on the way to Vatican
Embassy of Croatia in Vatican
The Croats embraced Catholicism more than 1,300 years ago. Their first contact with the Holy See occurred as early as 641 when they received the Pope's envoy Martin who came to ransom Christian slaves and martyrs' bones.
Three of the early popes were of the Croatian origin including SIXTUS V. Click here for more info. (10:02AM)
St. Peter's Square with an Egyptian Obelisk
The Papal Apartment occupies the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. The top two right windows are the study and bedroom of the pope.
Swiss Guard at the Bronze Door
Statue of St. Paul outside of St. Peter's Basilica (10:16AM)
(10:26AM)   The Central Nave
Towards St. Peter's baldachin
  Michelangelo's La Pieta
John Paul II Tomb
  (10:36AM)   St. Peter's baldachin by Bernini
The central dome in the Basilica overlooking St. Peter's baldachin by Bernini was designed by Michelangelo. (10:40AM)   St. Peter's baldachin by Bernini: ceiling. The dome was designed by Michelangelo. (10:40AM)   (10:41AM)
Behind the mosaic representing Christ Blessing there is a niche that belongs to the famous so-called Gaius Trophy. The latter is a shrine built above the Apostle's tomb around c. 160 A.D., against a red wall where the famous inscription in Greek: "Peter is here" has been discovered. The Basilica was built above the tomb of Peter, the first Pope. (10:42AM)
  The 1872 floor emblem dedicated to Pope Pius IX, the longest reigning Pope of the Catholic Church.
  St. Peter's baldachin by Bernini: canopy.
This is also the Center Altar in the Basilica.

The tomb of Pope Alexander VII, by Gianlorenzo Bernini
  A sculpture of Jesus, appearing with Peter, Paul, and Pope PIO VIII, are sculpted into one of the altars in St Peter's Basilica. (10:51AM)   View from the Basilica entrance with Bernini's matching fountain, year 1675 (10:55AM)
Changing of the Swiss Guard
  St. Peter's Square with an Egyptian Obelisk.
The obelisk was originally erected at Heliopolis by an unknown pharaoh of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt (c. 2494 BC – 2345 BC). It was moved to its current site in 1586 under the direction of Pope Sixtus V (11:13AM)
  Leaving Vatican City

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On the way to Fontana di Trevi
The Pons Cestius (Italian: Ponte Cestio, meaning "Cestius' Bridge") is a stone bridge, spanning the Tiber to the west of the Tiber Island. The original version of this bridge was built around the 1st century BC (some time between 62 and 27 BC) (11:35AM).   On Ponte Palatino, close to the Tiber Island (left) (11:36AM).   Temple of Janus, assimilated into the church of San Nicola in Carcere (10th century), Rome. Seen from Via del Foro Olitorio. The church was built over the site of the ancient Forum Holitorium (a vegetables and herbs market) (11:37AM).
Temple of Janus, later in the evening.
Well, this photo was not taken on the way to Trevi Fountain but it belongs here.(7:27PM) 
  Via del Foro Olitorio, an unidentified landmark
(close to Temple of Hercules Victor)
(perhaps the remnants of an aqueduct).
Latitude: N 41d 53m 20.75s
Longitude: E 12d 28m 52.64s
  Temple of Hercules Victor
 (nowadays known as Temple of Vesta). Piazza Bocca della Verità made famous by the movie in the 1953 film Roman Holiday starring Audrey Hepburn and Gregory Peck.

To the left is the Fountain of the Tritons (designed by Carlo Bizzacheri (1655-1712), and built around 1716, the fountain was commissioned by Pope Clement XI.  The temple’s true name – the Temple of Hercules Victor – is rarely used even today. It is incorrectly known as the Temple of Vesta because its circular, pillar-lined corpus recalls the ruins of the Temple of Vesta at the Forum Romanum. (11:39AM) 

Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium (11:39AM).


  Arch of Janus
(4th century AD), known in the Roman times as "Arcus Divi Constantini", in Forum Boarium with the Palatine Hill in background. For all the Roman Arches everywhere, click on this Wikipedia link. (11:39AM)
  Looking at the Palatine Hill. The museum is on top left. (11:41AM)
View of the Palatine Hill
  The Roman Forum. The structure with the eight columns is the Temple of Saturn. 
  The Column of Marcus Aurelius in Piazza Colonna. It looks like long scroll describing Aurelius' achievements. It was modeled on Trajan's Column. (11:59AM).
The Forum of Caesar and the Temple of Venus. The Arch of Septimus Severus is on the far left
The Forum of Caesar. For more information, click on this external link (12:02PM)
        First glimpse of the Coliseum (12:03PM)
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Fontana di Trevi

The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi district in Rome, Italy. Standing 26 meters (85.3 feet) high and 20 meters (65.6 feet) wide, it is the largest Baroque fountain in the city and one of the most famous fountains in the world. In 1629 Pope Urban VIII, finding the earlier fountain insufficiently dramatic, asked Gian Lorenzo Bernini to sketch possible renovations, but when the Pope died, the project was abandoned. Though Bernini's project was never constructed, there are many Bernini touches in the fountain as it exists today. An early, striking and influential model by Pietro da Cortona, preserved in the Albertina, Vienna, also exists, as do various early 18th century sketches, most unsigned, as well as a project attributed to Nicola Michetti one attributed to Ferdinando Fuga and a French design by Edme Bouchardon. The Trevi Fountain was finished in 1762 by Giuseppe Pannini, who substituted the present allegories for planned sculptures of Agrippa and "Trivia", the Roman virgin. The fountain was refurbished in 1998; the stonework was scrubbed and the fountain provided with recirculating pumps. Source: Wikipedia.

(12:25PM)     (12:25PM)
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The Palatine Hill
For more on this site, see this external link and the model of Palatine Hill, click here. For the Panoramic Earth view of the Hill, click here.

The Palatine Hill (Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 meters above the Forum Romanum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other. It is the etymological origin of the word "palace" and its cognates in other languages (Italian "Palazzo", French "Palais" etc.). Source: Wikipedia.

History: Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people have lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Livy, after the immigration of the Sabines and the Albans to Rome, the original Romans lived on the Palatine. Many affluent Romans of the Republican period (c.509 BC – 44 BC) had their residences there. During the Empire (27 BC – 476 AD) several emperors resided there; in fact, the ruins of the palaces of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), Tiberius (14 AD – 37 AD) and Domitian (81 AD – 96 AD) can still be seen. Augustus also built a temple to Apollo here, beside his own palace.  Source: Wikipedia.

The House of Augustus, Palatine Hill, (text from a poster at the site):
located near Romolo's cabin for ideological reasons, had a complex architectural structure. To its original nucleus, composed of the House of the orator Hortensius. Other dwellings were subsequently added. According to Velleius Paterculus, following the defeat of Pompey in 36 BC, Octavius, "through intermediaries, acquired numerous houses so as to augment his own: More than a century after the death of Augustus. Suetonius described the house (Divus Augustus 72,1-2) as "...not pleasing, either in terms of luxury or comfort, because it had only small porticos with columns of peperino, and rooms that had no marble paneling or decorated marble pavements. Here he lived, summer and winter, in the same cubiculum for over forty years: This description well fits the small dimensions of the excavated rooms, albeit their pictorial decorations are very elegant. In 3 AD Augustus enlarged and restructured the house he had acquired after fire had devastated the entire area.

Map of the Palatine Hill, the Forum and the Coliseum   Central area of the Palatine Hill. Severian Complex.
  Looking down the hill to the East. It was a beautiful day with majestic Top Hat Pines everywhere.
Palatine Hill Museum is on top left
  2:22PM   2:24PM
The House of Livia, third wife of emperor Augustus.
Part of the Augustan residence, the House of Livia was decorated with many frescoes. It was built on two levels, including an atrium on the top floor surrounded by small rooms. Four rooms on the bottom flor all opened out into a courtyard.
  The House of Livia. (58 BC – 29AD). She was the most powerful woman in Rome at the time and on equal footing with her husband Augustus. See this external link for more info.
  Palace of Domitian with Hippodrome
 Domitian built an enormous private garden in the form of a stadium for chariot races - 160 meters long. It was decorated by fountains and bounded by a two-storey portico. At the south end an imposing stand allowed the emperor to watch races in the Circus Maximus below.
The House of Agustus    
 The House of Augustus
(27 BC – 14 AD) (2:38PM)
  The House of Augustus
  Water cisterns. Water was brought to the Hill during the time of Nero. (2:46PM)
Giant foot with large toe. Was it a part of a huge statue? (2:47PM)   (2:51PM)   Section of a column with a brass peg

This is how Romans and Greeks joined the columns together (except that Greeks did not invent the concrete - the Romans did). It also appears that there is a hollow portion to the column section that was filled with concrete and then joined with another column section. (2:54PM)

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Roman Forum
(Forum Romanum)
It was an important meeting place for the Romans and the center of the public life, It is located adjacent to the Coliseum and the Palatine Hill.
For more on this site, see this external link and for the Panoramic Earth view of the Forum, click here.

The temple of Castor and Pollux (with three columns) left, the Arch of Septimus Severus in the middle and The Curia (The Seat of the Roman Senate) is at the right rear. House of the Vestals with pool and statues is in foreground right.
Click on this link or image to enlarge it.
(April 23, 3:10PAM)

House of the Vestals with statues in foreground and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in the background (partly obscured by renovation scaffolding) is on the left and Temple of Romulus on the right (round building).
Photo taken with Canon PC1200 10 Mpix Camera. No time stamp is given.
  Temple of Romulus on the left (round) and the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (built 308-312AD) on the right.
Photo taken with Canon PC1200 10 Mpix Camera. No time stamp is given.
  Curia Julia
(The Seat of the Roman Senate).
The original main door (partly visible) now adorn the front of the Basilica San Giovanni in Laterno.
Photo taken with Canon PC1200 10 Mpix Camera. No time stamp is given.
The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine    
The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine

From text from a poster at the site: The name Via Nova is generally applied to the stretch of road that runs in a straight line along the north-west slope of the Palatine, almost parallel to the Via Sacra. All the literary sources that mention the Via Nova date it to the Republican and Augustan periods, but the paved road that can be seen today relates to urban developments in the early imperial period, probably in the reign of Nero. Recent excavations have confirmed that the paved road was laid over earlier remains, specifically a late Republican domus (house). (3:06PM) 

  Poster at site identifying the main landmarks


The Arch of Septimus Severus
The triumphal arch was built in 203 A.D. to commemorate the victories of emperor Septimius Severus in Parthia (now partly Iran and Iraq).
Click on this link for more information

Note: Another Septimus Severus arch is located at the magnificent Roman ruins of Leptis Magna in Libya (his birth place).

  The Arch of Septimus Severus

Translated dedication: To the Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius, son of Marcus, Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus [=Septimius Severus], father of his country, conqueror of the Parthians in Arabia and Assyria, Pontifex Maximus, with Tribunician powers 11 times, triumphing general 11 times, consul 3 times, and proconsul; and to the Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius, son of Lucius, Antoninus Augustus Pius Felix [=Caracalla], with tribunician powers 6 times, consul, proconsul, father of his country—**the best and bravest of princes**—on account of the republic restored and the empire of the Roman people increased by their outstanding virtues at home and abroad, the Senate and the Roman people dedicate this arch.
Source: Peter Aicher, Rome Alive: A Source Guide to the Ancient City, vol. 1, Bolchazy-Carducci: 2004)

  Temple of Romulus (left) the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine on the right.

Temple of Romulus: Dating from the early of 4th century, this temple was dedicated to Divus Romulus, the son of the Emperor Maxentius who died in 307 AD. This temple, begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine, has remained practically intact thanks to its having been transformed, in the Middle Ages, into the atrium of the church of St. Cosma and St. Damiano. The bronze door is the late Imperial Age original.

The temple of Castor and Pollux (with three columns on the left) and Arch of Septimus Severus on the right

The Arch of Titus is a 1st-century honorific arch  located on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum. It was constructed in c. 82 AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD. (3:04PM)

One side of the Arch of Titus received new inscriptions after it was restored during the pontificate of Pope Pius VII by Giuseppe Valadier in 1821. The restoration was intentionally made in travertine to differentiate between the original and the restored portions.
The translated inscription reads:
(This) monument, remarkable in terms of both religion and art,
had weakened from age:
Pius the Seventh, Supreme Pontiff,
by new works on the model of the ancient exemplar
ordered it reinforced and preserved. In the year of his sacred rulership the 24th".
Source: Arch of Titus - Rome, Italy

  The Arch of Titus
Taken with Canon camera.
The victory procession, with a four-horse chariot (quadriga), always indicative of victory in art, driven by Titus (though his head is missing) and accompanied by (who?) Victory herself, with the wings… Source: ANCIENT and OLD ROME TOUR. 
The Sack of Jerusaelm on the Arch of Titus, Rome    
The Arch of Titus: The south panel of the inner arch depicts the triumphal procession and showing off the "The Spoils of War" taken from the Temple in Jerusalem in 71 AD. The booty includes a seven-branched candelabra (menorah), silver trumpets, and perhaps even the Ark of the Covenant.
  The Arch of Constantine.
In the attic of the Arch of Constantine there are 8 statues of Dacian prisoners. It appears that these statues are from the Trajan's Forum, then used in decorating the Arch of Constantine (Rome).
For more info see:


  The Arch of Constantine.
Photo taken from the Coliseum.
The southern inscription on the Arch of Constantine.
(For the translation source, click here).
To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantine, the Greatest, Pius, Felix, Augustus: inspired by (a) divinity, in the greatness of his mind, he used his army to save the state by the just force of arms from a tyrant on the one hand and every kind of factionalism on the other; therefore the Senate and the People of Rome have dedicated this exceptional arch to his triumphs. 3:42PM
  Walking down from the Forum towards the Coliseum past the columns of Temple of Venus and Roma.
  Temple of Venus and Roma
The Arch of Titus is to the left of the temple.
Photo taken from the Coliseum.
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The Coliseum
Anfiteatro Flavio

Animals used in the Coliseum (text from a poster at the site):
Finds from the cellars. A large number of animals were used in the Amphitheatre during the venationes, in displays of tamed animals and for

Poster in the Coliseum depicting what a Roman spectacle might have been like.
Click here or on the image to enlarge it.

 executions (damnatio ad bestias, summa supplicia). The specimens used are known from the iconographic and literary sources and their presence in the Amphitheatre is confirmed by the finds made during excavations and exhibited here. From the literary sources, particularly Cassius Dio, Pliny and the Historia Augusta. Two main categories of animals can be identified: herbivores, which included deers, and carnivores, above all leopards, cheetahs and panthers, in addition to lions and bears among the wild beasts. Besides these species, there were also boars and hares. In particular, Martial provides information about the many species of animal employed for the hunts: he records the encounter between an Hircanian tiger and a lion (Epigrams I, XVIII), between Molossian dogs and a doe, between huntsmen and bears (De Spectaculis 17. 19, 31), and he especially celebrates the venator Carpophorus who in one day killed a lion, a bear, a feline and some more rhinoceroses, buffalo and bison (Epigrams I, XV. XXII. XXIII. XXVIII). Different kinds of tamed animals were used for the displays. The same author records episodes in which he gives evidence of the tameness of wild beasts: the leopard wears a light yoke on his neck, ferocious tigers endure the whip without reacting, deer bite on gold bits, Libyan bears let themselves be led on a leash, a wild boar submits to a purple bridle (Epigrams I. CIV). Martial records the use of the same specimens for executions. With regard to exotic and rare animals, Herodian (1, 15) tells how the emperor Commodus filled the arena with a large number of ostriches and decapitated them with arrows. The emperor Probus too is recorded as having put on shows in which a hundred or so lions, leopard and lionesses appeared. Along with three hundred bears, numerous ostriches, deer, boars and other herbivores. (Historia Augusta, Life of Probus. 19, 1-8). The presence of a griffon, a rapacious carnivore, leads one to suppose that examples of this species, nowadays almost extinct in Italy, lived on the terraces of the Colosseum or in the immediate vicinity, ready to swoop down to the floor of the arena to seize their freshly killed prey.

Looking at the center of the Coliseum
Click on this link or image to enlarge it.

 3:42PM      3:59PM   4:04PM
Display of different types of heads
  These are the only restored seats in the Coliseum 
Temple of Venus and Roma from The Coliseum
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The Pantheon

The original Pantheon was commissioned by Marcus Agrippa in 27 BC as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome. It burned down along with other buildings in a huge fire in 80 AD and was rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian in about 126 AD. The original layout and size of the building is still debated. The pediment (triangular facade) was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.

It is one of the best preserved of all Roman buildings. It has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Roman Catholic church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as "Santa Maria della Rotonda." The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. Source: Wikipedia. See also: Hadrian's Temple by Bill Thayer.

"Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made this building when consul for the third time." The bronze letters are restored, not original, but they could tell by the attachment holes which letters were where, and by marks that the metal left on the marble. Source: ANCIENT and OLD ROME TOUR.
  Poster showing main points of interest
  The dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.
5:13PM   Looking at the main entrance to the Pantheon
  Madonna del Sasso, above the Tomb of Raphael (1483 – 1520) The translated inscription above his tomb reads: "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". Click on this Wikipedia link for more info (5:16PM).
(5:21PM)   (5:30PM)   (5:32PM)
Entrance to the Pantheon with huge granite Corinthian support columns that came from Egypt. (5:33PM)   Left corner side of the entrance to Pantheon: Close-up of the Corinthian capital and column. The three original columns at this side were replaced in the 17th c. with columns found near San Luigi dei Francesi. These columns were originally from baths which were built by Alexander Severus.  For more info, click here(5:36PM)   Close-up of the pediment.
Obelisk of Ramesses II in the Piazza della Rotonda by the Pantheon. The obelisk dates back to Temple of Ra in Heliopolis, it was placed by the Pantheon in 1711 by Pope Clement XI. (5:34PM)   The Temple of Hadrian was built on the old Campus Martius, by his adoptive son and successor Antoninus Pius in 145 and now incorporated into a later building in the Piazza di Pietra. Photo was taken on the way to rejoin the tour group at Fontana di Trevi. (6:29PM)  

Piazza del Campidoglio is one of Rome's most beautiful squares, designed in the sixteenth century by Michelangelo and laid out between two summits of the Capitoline Hill, the most important of Rome's fabled seven hills. On each side of the Piazza are  two large, ancient statues of Castor and Pollux. In the center is the bronze replica of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. (7:26PM)

On the way to Rome International Airport
On the morning of April 24, 2012
Pope Sixtus V obelisk, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.

The square in front of the Lateran Palace has an obelisk commissioned by Pharaoh Thuthmose III and completed by his grandson Thutmose IV in Karnak. It was placed in the Circus Maximus before being re-erected in its current location. Source: Wikipedia.

   Pope Sixtus V obelisk.
  Porta (Gate) Ardeatina and Via Cristoforo Colombo.

The Porta Ardeatina is one of the gates in the Aurelian Walls of Rome. It is between the Porta San Sebastiano (known originally as the Porta Appia) and the Porta San Paolo. By the 8th century this gate was closed. Today it is little more than a "window," with the portals of the Via Cristoforo Colombo nearby. See this liink for more info.



  1. PORPHYRY: As early as 1850 BC on Crete in Minoan Knossos there were large columns made of porphyry. All the porphyry columns in Rome, the red porphyry togas on busts of emperors, the porphyry panels in the revetment of the Pantheon, as well as the altars and vases and fountain basins reused in the Renaissance and dispersed as far as Kiev, all came from the one quarry at Mons Porpyritis ("Porphyry Mountain", the Arabic Jabal Abu Dukhan), which seems to have been worked intermittently between 29 and 335 AD. Source: Wikipedia.
  2. Temple of Portunus: (Italian: Tempio di Portuno) is an ancient building in Rome, Italy, the main temple dedicated to the god Portunus in the city. It is in the Ionic order and is still more familiar by its erroneous designation, the Temple of Fortuna Virilis ("manly fortune") given it by antiquaries. Located in the ancient Forum Boarium by the Tiber, during Antiquity the site overlooked the Port Tiberinus at a sharp bend in the river; from here, Portunus watched over cattle-barges as they entered the city from Ostia. The temple was built c. 75 BCE and restored in the 1st century BC. The rectangular building consists of a tetrastyle portico and cella, raised on high podium reached by a flight of steps, which it retains. Like the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, it has a pronaos portico of four Ionic columns across and two columns deep. The columns of the portico are free-standing, while the five columns on the long sides and the four columns at the rear are engaged along the walls of the ... Source: Wikipedia.
  3. Forum Boarium: was the cattle forum venalium of Ancient Rome and the oldest forum that Rome possessed. It was located on a level piece of land near the Tiber between the Capitoline, the Palatine and Aventine hills. Here, too, is where the first bridges were built. The Boarium was by the premier port of Rome (Port Tibernius), and experienced intense commercial activity. The Forum Boarium was the site of the first gladiatorial contest at Rome which took place in 264 BC as part of aristocratic funerary ritual—a munus or funeral gift for the dead. Decimus Junius Brutus Scaeva put on a gladiatorial combat in honor of his deceased father with three pairs of slaves serving as gladiators. The site was also a religious center housing the Temple of Hercules Victor, the Temple of Portunus, and the massive 6th or 5th century BC Great Altar of Hercules. Source: Wikipedia.
  4. Three of the early popes were of Dalmatian origin (now Croatia) origin including SIXTUS V. Click here for more info.
  5. 188th OLYMPIAD [=28-25 B.C.] A census was held at Rome, and 4,164,000 Roman citizens were listed.
  6. 121st OLYMPIAD [=296-293 B.C.] A census was held at Rome, and 270,000 [or "220,000" - Ar.] Roman citizens were counted.


  1. The history of Rome, Wikipedia.
  2. The Project Gutenberg eBook of The History of Rome Books One to Eight, by Titus Livius.
  3. Roman Forum. By by Rick Archer.
  4. Ancient Rome in the footsteps of an XVIIIth Century traveller
  5. The History of Rome Vol I-V, book by Theodor Mommsen - 1895. Original file is located at: See also: History of Rome (Mommsen) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  6. A HISTORY OF ROME TO 565 A. D. BY ARTHUR E. R. BOAK. PDF file by Project Gutenberg.
  7. Ancient History - Roman, list of 1313 books about the history of Rome.
  8. Leptis Magna: The best preserved Roman ruins in the world.

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GPS Photo Map of Palatine Hill, Forum and the Coliseum
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Nikon ViewNX2™ software in conjunction with Google Maps™ was used to pinpoint the location of each photo as shown by the pins.
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Nikon ViewNX2™ GPS Pins show where all the photos in Rome were taken during April 22-24, 2012
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Nikon ViewNX2™ software in conjunction with Google Maps™ was used to pinpoint the location of each photo as shown by the pins.
Map Copyright Google and other contributors

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